Common Types of Data Structure For Every Software Engineer

6 minutes read
Last updated
April 27, 2022
common types of data structure

Generally, there are different types of data structures around us. From many types of Data structures, we will work on a specialized one that works on organizing and storing data in the computer, wherein we can efficiently operate and store data. With common types of data structure, we have an enormous scope of usage in Computer Science and Engineering.  

data structure

Data Structure types are used in every kind of program and software system for development. All of them are coming from fundamental Computer science and software engineering. When it comes to knowledge of different data structures, the developers have to make things better with their information. 

They generally work with other data structures, and everything they do is organized with the data structure. When the software developers need to face any interview, they have to go through common types of data structures. So, it is a common fact for them. Having good knowledge of what data structures are will reach you to your working destination.

Common Types of Data Structure

We will discuss many things, where we will talk about computer science data structure, data structure basics, data structure programs, and overall what data structure is. Some common types of data structures are given below.


It is a structure of fixed size and the same type of data. It also can be an array of integers, strings, arrays, and floating-point numbers. As the arrays are indexed, you can access them randomly too.

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Array Operations

You can search, update and traverse the array operations easily with command. You can do a lot with the arrays. The arrays are fixed in size; you cannot delete any element or insert any element.

For doing that, you need to create a new array with a larger size, where you can add an element. In this way, you can delete another array.

Use of Array

  • It can build blocks to make data structures, as heaps, hash tables, vectors, array lists, and matrices.
  • They are used for algorithms as sort, quick sort, merge sort, and bubble sort.

Linked Lists

It is a sequential structure where a sequence of items is linked with each other. Here you will access data, and having random access point is not possible. Linked lists give a clear picture of the dynamic sets. So here we will talk about the linked lists, they are like.

  • The linked list for elements is called nodes.
  • Each node has a key, and there are successor node named as next.
  • Attributes named as Head points are the first element.
  • The last element on the linked list is called tail.

There are many more various types of linked lists such as:

  • Singly-linked list
  • Doubly linked list
  • Circular Linked lists

There are linked list operations:

  • Search
  • Insert
  • Delete

There are linked list and applications are-

  • They are used as symbol table management  in compiler design
  • They are used in switching between programs using Alt+Tab


Generally, a stack is called LIFO, where an element placed in the last position can be accessed first. There it is commonly found in programming languages, where it is called stack as a real-world stack.

Stack Operations 

There are two different essential operations of the stack that are used frequently:

  • Push
  • Pop

Some other additional functions are used here.

  • Peek
  • isEmpty
  • isFull

Applications of stacks

  • They use it for expression evaluation- mathematical expressions.
  • It is used for implementing functions calls in recursion programming.


A queue is another excellent example of a FIFO structure that is found in many programming languages. It is called a queue as people are waiting in the queue.

Queue Operations

There are two types of essential operation that is done in the queue, those are-

  • Enqueue 
  • Dequeue 

Queue Applications

  • They are used to manage threads in a multithreading.
  • It helps to implement a queuing system.

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Hash Tables

It is a data structure that has values in them as keys to each other. It also works with value in them. It also does inserting and searches the size of the data. Here,  direct addressing helps to find a one-to-one mapping for values and keys.

When there are many key-value pairs, there will be so many records in the table ad that it will become impossible for a typical computer to solve. For saving from this situation, we need hash tables.


The Hash function (h) is a particular function for overcoming the problems of chaining and open addressing.  

Applications are:

  • Implement database indexes
  • Implement associate arrays
  • Implement a set data structure


It is a unique structure where data is organized hierarchically and linked together. It is different from a linked list, where they are linked in linear order. There are different types of trees where they work as applications and meet certain constraints. 

Binary Search Trees 

These are called BST, the data here is organized as a hierarchical structure, and they show stored values in sorted order. It has the following attributes too: 

  • Key
  • Left 
  • Right 

In binary search, the tree shows unique properties from other trees. The property is called the binary search tree property.  

Tree Applications

  • Binary Trees 
  • Binary search tree 
  • Heaps 
  • Traps 


Generally, Heap is called special care of binary tree where the parent nodes are compared to children with values and arranged accordingly. We now can see how we can represent heaps; here there are used as arrays. Binary Heap is used as a binary tree and array.

There are two types: 

  • Min heap 
  • Max Heap 

Application of heaps are-

  • Used in heapsort algorithm 
  • Used for implement priority queues 
  • Que functions are used with heaps 
  • Used to find the smallest value in the given array 


Generally, a graph consists of a finite set of vertices or nodes and a bunch of edges connecting their vertices. In the ordering of the graph, there is a number of vertices in there. The size of the graph is several edges here. Here two notes are said as adjacent and connected.

There are directed graphs

  • Self Loops 

Undirected Graphs 

And there are different types of applications of graphs too.

Final Words

We have discussed a lot in detail about the programming issues; these are the basic things. We now have better ideas, and a new programmer starts with his basic and gradually moves on. Here you will get a thorough opinion, and from Bitbytesoft we also train the new programmers on them first.

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